Estimated GHG reductions from projects under Climate Forward are Forecasted Mitigation Units (FMUs). One FMU is equal to one metric ton of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) that is expected to be reduced or sequestered. FMUs can be used for voluntary purposes and for meeting regulatory obligations where permitted and accepted.
FMUs are different from offset credits, which are issued under the Climate Action Reserve offset program. Offsets are issued after rigorous monitoring and verification of offset projects for emissions reductions and avoidances that have already happened. This is known as ex-post. FMUs are initially issued on an ex-ante basis, meaning they are issued for forecasted emissions reductions and avoidances that are conservatively calculated. Following the initial ex-ante issuance under Climate Forward, the program gives the Project Proponent the opportunity in the future to demonstrate that it has actually created more emission reductions than reflected in the initial ex-ante issuance. Appropriate procedures allow a Project Proponent to petition the Reserve for additional FMUs under the Climate Forward program on an ex-post basis.